No, That animal in the Zoo Isn’t Saying ‘Hi’ to You: Commonly Misinterpreted Captive Animal Behaviors

It’s safe to assume that at one point or another, each of us has experienced seeing animals in captivity. Having the opportunity to see wild animals like tigers, elephants and gorillas up close is an exhilarating prospect. Sadly, anyone who as ever set foot inside an establishment housing captive wild animals has also likely witnessed unnatural stereotypic behaviors.

Many patrons are amused, feeling as though the animals are following them around the exhibit. In some cases, they think the animals are “dancing.” The truth is these are only a few of the many stereotypic behaviors exhibited by captive animals. These abnormal behaviors describe “zoochosis,” the psychological impact captivity has on wild animals.

The term was first coined in 1992 by Bill Travers to characterize zoo animals. Today the term refers to any captive wild animal exhibiting abnormal behaviors, including animals in zoos, aquariums, testing (lab) facilities and pseudo-sanctuaries. These behaviors serve no clear purpose or function and are destructive to the animal’s mental, and often physical, well-being.

According to one study, the importance of behavior is as significant as the internal organs essential to one’s life. Animals that display normal behaviors allow for homeostasis, which is needed to ensure internal conditions are maintained and stable. When a captive animal is not capable of modifying or controlling its environment, animals begin to cope by exhibiting stereotypic behavior. Scientists believe this abnormal behavior releases endorphins and allows for momentary relief.

While many renowned facilities pour millions of dollars into programs designed to keep the animals “happy,” it’s clear that stereotypic behaviors are representative of poor welfare in captivity. No habitat can rival the environment animals would have in the wild; albeit the animals born in zoos and other facilities are often born through breeding programs, the number of animals suffering from these stereotypic behaviors only further corroborates that these animals are inherently wild and suffer in captivity.



The world’s last remaining male northern white rhinoceros has died.

Sudan was euthanized the Monday, according to reports, after he was suffering too much pain from a degenerative disease.

There are only two females left – his daughter and granddaughter. Before Sudan was put down, ‘genetic material’ was collected from him, with conservationists hoping it can be used for breeding.
Much of the species was killed by hunting in earlier times – followed by illegal poaching in recent yeas.

Sudan, who lived in the Ol Pejeta Conservancy in Kenya, was described as a ‘gentle giant’ by staff there.

Elodie Sampere, a representative for Ol Pejeta, said: “He was a gentle giant, his personality was just amazing and given his size, a lot of people were afraid of him.

“But there was nothing mean about him.”

“He was a great ambassador for his species and will be remembered for the work he did to raise awareness globally of the plight facing not only rhinos, but also the many thousands of other species facing extinction as a result of unsustainable human activity.

“One day, his demise will hopefully be seen as a seminal moment for conservationists worldwide.” Rip Sudan 💔


The reason why I became a vegan

First I want to explain what it means to be vegan and what is a vegan diet.

Veganism is a philosophy that moves by respect for animals. When you finish reading this post, 300,000 animals will have died at the hands of man.

If you look at the world with attention, you will see the inescapable hell in which we have converted it for the majority of the inhabitants of the planet.


Human civilization, with all its great advances, is based on the daily and implacable exploitation of the weakest.

The human being tends to use the animal world for its own benefit in many facets of life.

We eat a lot of meat or products from certain animals, we investigate with them to test treatments or creams, and we dress with their skins. And this is precisely what veganism avoids. To understand the vegan philosophy, we must think of a way of life with the utmost respect for the animal world. It is also a current that opposes speciesism, that is, discrimination according to the species. In fact, this is considered the main cause of animal  exploitation.

For the compassion I feel for other living beings. This is an argument used by many and ridiculed by many others, but it is true.

I do not pretend to convince others to follow my lifestyle, but I intend to live an honest life and in accordance with my principles: not harm others for free.

I do not need animal meat for my survival, which is why I consider it unnecessary to consume it. Still, if you consume it, I will not judge it, because it is my personal choice.


The real reason why there aren’t any snakes in Ireland – it’s not St. Patrick

Legend tells it that in addition to introducing Christianity to Ireland, St. Patrick banished all the snakes from the Emerald Isle, chasing them into the sea from atop a cliff where he had undertaken a 40-day fast. As beloved as this element of St. Patrick’s story may be, a brief scientific inquiry and look back through history, such reveals what while St. Patrick did a great many things, sending snakes slithering away from Ireland was not one of them.

Snakes never came to Ireland

The truth is that there were never any snakes in Ireland to begin with.

There are no signs of snakes in Ireland’s fossil record. In fact, it’s likely that for millennia there weren’t any snakes in either Ireland or Britain, though Britain eventually gained three species of snakes: the Grass Snake, the Adder Snake and the Smooth Snake.
So, how did that happen?

During the Ice Age, Ireland and England were too frigid to be suitable habitats for cold-blooded reptiles such as snakes. But then, 10,000 years ago, when the glaciers shifted and land emerges connecting Europe, England and Ireland, allowing for migration. Animals that did make it to Ireland during this time period included brown bears, lynx and wild boars.

As Popular Science noted, when the glaciers began melting, the land between Ireland and England was covered over 8,500 years ago, but the land between Britain and Europe went underwater 6,500 years ago, allowing more time for snakes to slither over.

Ireland is not alone

Ireland is not the only place in the world without snakes – there are no native species of snakes to be found in Iceland, Greenland, Hawaii, New Zealand, parts of Canada, northern Russia, or, not surprisingly, Antarctica . . . meaning St. Patrick would have been a very busy fellow.

On the contrary, it seems that snakes have served as an allegory of paganism, which St. Patrick “banished” when he brought the Catholic religion to the shores of Ireland.

“There has never been any suggestion of snakes in Ireland [There was] nothing that St. Patrick could banish,” said Nigel Monaghan, guardian of natural history at the National Museum of Ireland in Dublin,
Or, as Mark Ryan, director of the Louisiana Poison Center of the Health Sciences Center at Louisiana State University, “There are no snakes in Ireland for the simple reason that they could not get there because the weather was not It was favorable for them to be there. ”

The only courageous reptile that did make it all the way to and populate Ireland was the common lizard. The Slow Worm, a non-native species of lizard that does not have legs, is often mistaken for a snake even though it was not one.

Interestingly, during the Celtic Tiger, owning exotic snakes became something of a status symbol in Ireland. But when the Irish economy collapsed, many snakes wound up abandoned due to the high cost of care.

For St. Patrick’s Day 2013, the New York Times reported on the phenomenon and talked to Kevin Cunningham, founder of the National Exotic Animal Sanctuary, which took in many abandoned snakes.

He said that he believes Irish people have an inbred fear of snakes.

He added: “We have it deep inbred in us that they’re evil and nasty and tempted Eve and were led out of Ireland.

“One six-foot snake ended up with us recently after its owner lost his job and had to move in with his parents.

“Being a good Irish mother, she said, ‘Of course I’ll take you back home — but I’m not taking your boa constrictor.’”



Molly Malone Story

For someone who trod this Earth for so brief a period, the youngest daughter of two fishmongers named Patrick and Colleen Malone had a far greater impact on those who knew her, and many who did not, than almost anyone else who had ever lived in the seedy waterfront neighborhoods of Dublin during the early part of the 19th century.

In fact, so great was the outpouring of grief at the funeral of young Molly Malone, struck down by a fever as she blossomed into full womanhood, that the pubs for sixteen miles in every direction were obliged to stay open around the clock for three days following the sad event. Indeed, the reason for this unprecedented communal agony was summed up neatly by the epitaph engraved on the simple stone that graced her final resting place. To wit: Here Beneath This Cold, Hard Stone, Lies Lovely, Lifeless Molly Malone. Cruelly Snatched From This Vale of Tears At The Tender Age of Seventeen Years. To See Her Was To Love Her.

“To see her was to love, her,” indeed. From the time she was a little girl holding on to her mother’s skirts as the two of them made their daily rounds through the streets of Dublin, everyone knew that Molly Malone would grow up to be among the most beautiful flowers of all Ireland.

And none were disappointed. In fact, such was young Molly’s beauty that when she was old enough to push her own barrow through the cobbled streets, she was like a ray of sunshine bringing hope and gladness into the dingy lives and sad hearts of all who saw her. None were unaffected by her grace, her delicate auburn-haired beauty, her happy disposition, or by the liquid sunshine of her voice as she sang out, “Cockles and mussels, alive, alive oh!”.

Of all those affected by Molly’s charms, however, none was more so than a young man by the name of Timothy Pendleton. The illegitimate son of an English nobleman and a poor Irish seamstress, young Timothy made a meager living as an itinerant street musician who entertained passersby for whatever they would throw in his open fiddle case.

Every day, Timothy would situate himself on a corner where he knew Molly would pass on her appointed rounds. And every day as he heard her approach, he would change from whatever jig he was playing to the most beautiful violin sonata he knew. No words ever passed between them. But the depth of his feeling was plain to Molly by the lovely music he seemed to be playing just for her, and by the courtly little bow he made in her direction as she passed close by. If the truth were known, she felt something of the same passion for this shy young man with the sad, dark eyes and the violin.

One day, the appointed time came and Molly didn’t appear. Timothy remained on his corner until well after sunset, but there was no Molly to be seen. When she didn’t appear the following day, he began to worry. In all the time he had played on this corner, she had never failed him. And, as he had no way of knowing whether she had simply changed her route, or something terrible had happened to her, his worry
soon turned to dread.

It was on the third day of Molly’s absence that word began to spread through the streets of Dublin. Molly had been suddenly taken with a raging fever, and was even then being administered the last rites by Father Finnegan of Saint Bart’s. When the news reached Timothy’s ears, he packed up his fiddle and raced across Dublin to be near her in her hour of need.

But alas, he was too late. Even before he found the poor waterfront neighborhood where she had lived, Molly’s lifeless body was being prepared for the wake. The wailing had begun.

For weeks after the funeral, Timothy wandered the streets, unable to play his violin, and unable to put the vision of Molly from his mind. He could eat little, and slept even less. He began to look haggard and unkempt; his long hair became an uncombed wilderness, and a glint of madness shone from dark-circled eyes. Everywhere he went, he could
hear Molly’s voice plaintively crying out, “Cockles and mussels, alive alive, oh!”.

And every day he saw her form, disappearing into an early morning fog, or just rounding a corner in the distance. It soon became apparent, even to him, that he must leave Dublin or surely die of this madness.

And so, with little more than the clothes on his back, his violin and the few pounds he had saved, young Timothy found passage on a merchant schooner and set sail for the distant shores of America.

It so happened that the ship upon which Timothy sailed was bound for the New England seaport town of Portsmouth. Here he disembarked, and soon found employment on the docks, unloading ships and helping out in a ship’s chandlery. In a vain attempt to bury his homesickness for Dublin along with his memory of Molly, he threw himself into his work with the energy of ten men. He lived alone in a single room, saved his
money, and was never seen in the gaming and ale houses frequented by the other young unmarried men of his day. Nor was he ever seen in the company of a woman.

Thus, within a few short years, Timothy had established himself as a man of some importance in the bustling seaport town. He became a successful merchant with a thriving import export business. He
invested in one of the great clipper ships being built on the Piscataqua Yards. He built a fine brick home on the corner of Penhallow and State Streets, where he lived alone with a man-servant and two dogs. He became, in short order, the most sought after yet
elusive eligible bachelors in Portsmouth. But in all the years since leaving Dublin, he had never once picked up his violin.

One winter’s night, as he sat warming himself by the fire with the one after dinner brandy he allowed himself, he remembered Molly. He could see the way she looked at him as she passed with her barrow of fish; and could hear the sweet strains of the music as he played for her. He allowed himself a second brandy, and then a third; and the longer he sat staring into the fire, the more he felt an undeniable urge to pick up the violin and play.

And so he did. Miraculously, the violin had survived the ocean crossing and ensuing years without injury. Its sound was as sweet and true as an Irish sunrise, and his fingers were as sure on the bow and strings as the day he put it down. But it was the song he played that really surprised him — a melody he had never heard; a simple, happy tune with words that came from he knew not where, played and sung as though someone else were doing the playing and singing.

He played that night until his fingers burned and his heart broke with the memory of his youth on the streets of Dublin. He played until he could play no more. And as he slowly, gently laid the violin back in
its dusty case, he thought he heard a noise behind him.

“Timothy.” He froze. It was the voice of a young woman.

“Timothy,” the voice said again. “Please…don’t be afraid.”

He turned. And there, in the center of the room, the fire light dancing in her auburn hair, looking as young and lovely as the day she died, stood the figure of Molly Malone.

“S…s…surely, it’s the brandy,” he stammered when his voice returned. “This can’t be…I must be…this is all a dream…”

“No, Timothy,” she smiled and took a step closer to him. “This is no dream, and I’m no vision. It is I, Molly Malone.”

“But…but why?” he said. “Why have you come?”

The figure moved another step closer. “It was the music,” she said. “I’ve been waiting for you to play your violin for me. The way you did in Dublin.”

With that, she took a final step toward him, put her hands on either side of his face, and as though to prove she were no mere apparition, kissed him full on the mouth.

Before he could recover from the shock of her warm lips on his, she stepped back and smiled.

“Now, pick up that violin,” she said, a twinkle in her Irish eyes. “I feel like dancing!”

As you might have surmised, gentle reader, the tune Timothy played on the night of Molly’s visit turned out to be none other than “The Ballad of Molly Malone”; or, as it is more commonly known among school
children and lovers of Irish lore on both sides of the Atlantic, “Cockles and Mussels.”

As for Timothy? We know that he lived a long and happy life in the brick house on Penhallow and State, never married, and was considered an eccentric old fool by most of his contemporaries. After all, a man
who spent every evening and night of his life all alone in that big, empty house, must be a little bit mad.

And never mind the stories you might have heard about fiddle music and silhouettes of dancing figures coming from the front parlor of the old Pendleton house late at night.

You might have even heard snatches of music, or caught a fleeting glimpse of a dancing figure here yourself. But pay it no mind. It’s just your imagination. Or perhaps you’ve had one too many brandies yourself.




The cat is one of the most common pets in the whole world.

However, we have the certainty that both those who own a feline, or who want one, and want it as a pet, are only partially informed about them and their way of living with humans.

They enjoy a really interesting personality and their independence makes many owners feel that they abandon them when they see that the night comes, as their gift leaves home and delves into the secrets of the city.

Aristocratic and sharp, hunters, affectionate and above all independent are some of the characteristics of cats. But we must not forget that, as in all races, there are different temperaments and that among them we must seek the closest to our way of living and being.

When we have already decided to have a pet of these or if you already have it at home, it is important to take into account a couple of considerations to relate to these felines that have multifaceted personalities and, of course, some tricks.

The personality of the cat

The cat is essentially an independent, curious, dormant animal of admirable physical prowess. Its characteristics of corporal flexibility and resistance make it a natural gymnast capable of performing countless pirouettes, jumps and climbs almost anywhere. But, without doubt, the main characteristic of these animals is their personality. To treat a cat you have to put it in its position, that is, think like a cat.

He wants his own space, which must be respected for an adequate coexistence. Do not forget that the cat is an independent being, very different from dogs, for example. However, how do cats see us? The answer is very simple, they see us as if we were their mother. You may notice it when it approaches with its tail rigidly lifted just as the puppies run towards their mother cat. He will claim when he is hungry, feels uncomfortable or simply requires his attention just as he did with his mother when he was little. In the development of this section we will give more information so that the coexistence with your cat is more and more pleasant and you can fully enjoy this formidable pet.

But to begin to know them better, we divide their character into four types:

The timid ones:

Usually, they stay at a certain distance for a good time and at the first meeting with you they will retire to your corner to observe from that place. The first contacts that you must establish with him should be very cautious, but once the ice breaks, he will become an animal very attached to “his”, although he will continue distrusting those he does not know.

It is important not to disappoint him, since it will be very difficult to recover his confidence again. It is good to spoil him, treat him with care and make him love slowly.

The extroverts:

These cats do not have a drop of fear in front of the presence of man. After a period of abstinence, you will approach cordially and let yourself be caressed. Do not be afraid if you find the best shelter in your arms. In general, they are active, curious and playful with children, as long as they do not take their tails and respect their long naps. Even if your behavior is open, a cat will never bear to be harassed. We recommend that it is he who approaches voluntarily to play or ask for affection, since with his personality it will not cost him to be indifferent.

The silent ones:

If you like calm and calm, you will feel closely linked to this type of cats. They are balanced and get along very well with their peers. This type of pussy takes time to interact with the man, but not because of fear, but because he likes to do everything calmly and without haste. They are ideal companions for trips, since they can spend hours and hours in their basket without meowing.

This type of feline never suffers from stress, because he seems not to shudder with anything, he does not retreat, but he likes to observe from his place. If you appreciate this difference of nuances, you will know who is ahead.

The capricious

It would be better to say that it is a sensitive and susceptible cat. Then he takes everything wrong and his “anger” can last for hours. And very careful that someone wants to take something he had seen before, because he has many tricks to make clear who is the one who carries the baton. It is not a cat for noisy people because it is nervous and terrifying. Although some scientists point out that colors could determine the character of these cats, a conclusion has not yet been reached. The best recommendation we can give you is just to observe, so that you learn from it and also assimilate the customs of your home.

Within the temperament you will find de facto all inheritable characteristics including your own adaptation that will depend on the age of the cat since if it is young it will take little time to adapt to the change of home and if you are going to have siblings. If the cat is already big, the adaptation is a little complicated because his character was already formed in the environment where it was developed and therefore it will be necessary to find the appropriate way to treat it. Within this class they are divided into: fearful cat: he has had bad experiences with man and may have fears that force him to hide constantly. Difficult Cat: A cat like this usually scratches and bites when you try to grab it. II: BEHAVIORO factor that integrates personality is the behavior that includes encounters with friends (other cats), marking, aggressiveness and survival. 9000 years ago, the relationship between man and cat began in the Middle East, very fluctuating, since in ancient Egypt was worshiped as a god and in the Middle Ages was persecuted as an ally of the devil. And there is something in the personality of the cat that disturbs the human species, which does not quite understand that enigmatic companion with intense eyes, which maintains both distances … Cats are beings, control their emotions better than humans, they are more agile than dogs or any other domestic animal. Self-sufficient, controlled, independent, strong, silent, endowed with an exceptional physical structure, the strength of its members only deteriorates with age. However, we often do not understand it and this is because, unlike dogs, cats are much more mimetic and very different from their masters. For example, like humans, dogs are gregarious animals, which depend on the company of their type. We have both developed a host body language: humans smile and greet; the dogs tremble, they drop their ears and move their tails. But cats have a different behavior, still in an evolutionary process, from the scenario of solitary hunters to sociable species. They joined the species later than any other pet species and suddenly, during this century, they have become popular to the point that it is estimated that there are more than 200 million in the world, which makes them the most of the celebrations of history.


10 things we can all do to end gender violence. Stop Violence Against Women


1. Consider violence against the opposite sex as an all-embracing issue, involving men and women with all kinds of socio-economic and racial backgrounds.

2. If a brother, friend or partner mistreats his partner or is abusive towards women in general, do not ignore him, invite him to seek help or dialogue with a person who gives him appropriate guidance. Do not be silent.

3. Understand how your own attitude and actions can generate sexism and violence. Have the courage to look inside.

4. If you suspect that a woman you know is being abused or sexually assaulted, ask her if she wants help.

5. If you recognize yourself as violent and abusive towards women, or as it was in the past, seek professional help, act on behalf of your emotional and psychological health.

6. Be an ally of the people who are fighting to end all kinds of violence.

7. Recognize and speak out against homophobia and the mistreatment of homosexuals and lesbians. Discrimination and violence against people for thinking and / or acting differently are incorrect. This abuse is directly related to sexism (for example, men who speak out against sexism are often the object of homophobic abuse and this is one of the reasons why very few men do it).

8. Do not patronize sexism. Refuse to buy any magazine, rent any video or buy any music that presents women in a degrading or violent manner. Protest against sexism in the media.

9. Look for information on masculinity and gender inequality and the root of the problem of violence. Educate yourself and educate in the knowledge of social and cultural factors that originate this conflict and that affects women and men in your family.

10. Guide and teach young people about how to be men and women who live in peace, who do not admit violence, especially against girls and women in general. Take the lead by setting a good example. BE THE HERO IN YOUR OWN HOUSE!

It is important to recognize that domestic violence can happen between same-sex couples and against men in heterosexual relationships. Everyone deserves a life without violence.