The Surprising Way Sigmund Freud Used His Dog for Psychoanalysis of Humans

Sigmund Freud, the founding father of psychoanalysis, was a pioneer in the field of psychology and renowned for his theories on human development. Little known fact: he was also a dog person.

Freud had a love for chow chows in particular. One of his chow chows, Jofi, was his right-hand canine and accompanied him during patient sessions.

Freud thought that dogs had a calming effect over people (which they do, of course). Recent studies have supported this notion. In one study, participants were placed into one of three conditions; they either had a dog nearby, were asked to think about a dog, or had no pet involvement (the control group). The participants then had their blood pressure measured while performing a distressing cognitive task.

Results showed that those who had a dog present, and even those who were just thinking about a dog, had lower blood pressure than those who had no pet involvement.

Freud also thought that dogs had the ability to read people’s emotional states and were great judges of character. He would assess his patient’s mental states with the help of Jofi. She would lie relatively near a patient if the patient was calm whereas she would keep her distance if the patient was anxious.

Jofi was special in that she had an internal clock that would alert her when Freud’s sessions were over. After exactly 50 minutes, she would get up, stretch, and head for the door, letting Freud know that it was time to wrap things up. Freud described Jofi as “a charming creature, so interesting in her feminine characteristics, too, wild, impulsive, intelligent and yet not so dependent as dogs often are”. 

FREUD Y JOFI

 

Poe’s Short Stories “The Black Cat”

On the eve of his death, an unnamed narrator opens the story by proclaiming that he is sane, despite the wild narrative he is about to convey. This narrative begins years before, when the narrator’s honorable character is well known and celebrated. He confesses a great love for cats and dogs, both of which, he says, respect the fidelity of friendship, unlike fellow men. The narrator marries at a young age and introduces his wife to the domestic joys of owning pets. Among birds, goldfish, a dog, rabbits, and a monkey, the narrator singles out a large and beautiful black cat, named Pluto, as his favorite.

Though he loves Pluto, the narrator begins to suffer from violent mood swings, predominantly due to the influence of alcohol. He takes to mistreating not only the other animals but also his wife. During this uncontrollable rage, he spares only Pluto. After returning home quite drunk one night, the narrator lashes out at Pluto. Believing the cat has avoided him, he vengefully grasps the cat, only to be bitten on the hand. In demonic retaliation, the narrator pulls a penknife from his pocket and cuts out one of the cat’s eyes. Though the narrator wakes the next morning with a partial feeling of remorse, he is unable to reverse the newly ominous course of his black soul. Ignored for certain now by the wounded cat, the narrator soon seeks further retaliation. He is overwhelmed by a spirit of PERVERSENESS, and sets out to commit wrong for the sake of wrong. He hangs Pluto from the limb of a tree one morning.

On the night of Pluto’s hanging, the narrator’s family’s house burns down, but he dismisses the possibility of a connection between the two events. The day after the fire, which destroys all the narrator’s possessions, he witnesses a group of neighbors collected around a wall that remains standing. Investigating their shouts of amazement, the narrator discovers the impression of a gigantic cat—with a rope around its neck—on the surface of the wall. The narrator attempts to explain rationally the existence of the impression, but he finds himself haunted by this phantasm over the course of many months. One night, while out drunk, the narrator discovers a black object poised upon a large barrel of alcohol. A new black cat has appeared, resembling Pluto but with a splash of white on his fur.

As with Pluto, the narrator experiences a great fondness for the mysterious cat, which no one has seen before. The cat becomes part of the household, much adored by his wife as well. However, following the earlier pattern, the narrator soon cannot resist feelings of hatred for the cat. These murderous sentiments intensify when the narrator discovers that the cat’s splash of white fur has mysteriously taken on the shape of the gallows, the structure on which a hanging takes place. The white fur reveals the mode of execution that claimed Pluto, and the narrator pledges revenge.

One day, descending into the cellar of the building with his wife, the narrator almost trips over the cat. Enraged, the narrator grabs an axe to attack the cat, but his wife defends the animal. Further angered by this interference, the narrator turns his rage at his wife and buries the axe in her head. Faced with the evidence of his crime, the narrator considers many options for the body’s disposal, including dismemberment and burial. The narrator eventually decides to take advantage of the damp walls in the basement and entomb the body behind their plaster. Without any difficulty, the narrator creates a tomb in the plaster wall, thereby hiding the body and all traces of his murder. When he finally turns to the cat, it is missing, and he concludes that it has been frightened away by his anger.

On the fourth day after the murder, the police arrive unexpectedly at the narrator’s apartment. Cool and collected, the narrator leads them through the premises, even into the basement. Though facing the scene of the crime, the police do not demonstrate any curiosity and prepare to leave the residence. The narrator, however, keeps trying to allay their suspicion. Commenting upon the solid craftsmanship of the house, he taps on the wall—behind which is his wife’s body—with a cane. In response to the tapping, a long, loud cry emanates from behind the wall. The police storm the wall and dismantle it, discovering the hidden corpse. Upon its head sits the missing cat.

Analysis

Much like “The Tell-Tale Heart,” “The Black Cat” follows the narrator’s descent into madness after he proclaims his sanity in the tale’s opening paragraph. Even the narrator acknowledges the “wild” nature of the tale, attempting thereby to separate his mental condition from the events of the plot. The nature of the narrator’s madness differs from that of the narrator of “The Tell-Tale Heart.” “The Black Cat” does not concern itself only with the self-contained nature of the narrator’s mind. Rather, the narrator confesses an alcoholism that interferes with his grasp on reality and produces mood swings. Alcohol is, like the cat, an external agent that intrudes on the dynamics of the plot. The introduction of alcohol as a plot device is also significant because Edgar Allan Poe was an reputedly uncontrollable drunk throughout his lifetime. For many years, his biographers asserted that he died of alcohol poisoning in a gutter in Baltimore. More recent biographies insist that the exact cause of Poe’s death cannot be determined. Regardless, it is certain that Poe suffered from the deleterious effects of alcohol consumption throughout his life.

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Emotional intelligence exercises: 3 Practical Ways to Increase Your EI

Emotional intelligence measures our ability to understand and manage our emotions, along with the emotions of other people. It is used to determine how well we are able to manage the emotion in a healthy and productive way.

EI is crucial to our lives, as it can greatly influence how successful our careers and relationships are. Regardless of what stage you are at in your life, the following guidelines will be very useful in enhancing your emotional intelligence level.

1. Take Responsibility for How You Feel and Act

One of the most challenging yet very helpful steps in your attempt to increase your emotional intelligence is to take responsibility for your feelings as well as your behaviour.

Don’t forget that both your emotions as well as your behaviour come from no one but you. Therefore, it is you who is responsible for them.

If you are hurt by the actions or words of someone, and as a result, you lash out at them, it is you who is responsible for the reaction – not them!

Your feelings can give you information about your experiences with the other individual along with your personal preferences and needs; however, your feelings are not the responsibility of anyone else but you.

Learn to  Take responsibility for your feelings and actions, and you will automatically start to have a positive impact on many areas of your life.

2. Practice Responding Instead of Reacting

When we react to something, we pave way for an unconscious process which is triggered by a certain emotional state. We also behave in a manner that relieves or expresses our emotion. For instance, if someone interrupts you when you are talking to someone, you may feel irritated and snap at the person.

Responding, on the other hand, is a conscious process that involves you noticing how you are feeling, and then deciding the course of action with regards to your behaviour. For example, if you are feeling irritated, it would be wise to tell the person that you are feeling this way, and it isn’t the appropriate time for them to interrupt you.

3. Empathize with Yourself and with Others

Empathy is all about understanding why an individual feels/behaves in a particular way. It is about communicating that to them. It doesn’t only apply to others, but also to ourselves. Practicing this can significantly enhance your emotional intelligence.

Initially, your focus should be only on yourself. Whenever you are feeling or even behaving in a particular way, ask yourself ‘Why am I feeling or doing this?’ At the very start, your response would probably be ‘I don’t know.’

With time, as you continue to focus on the reasons that make you feel and behave in a certain way, you will begin to answer that question.

Once you have gained significant control over your emotions and behaviours after understanding the factors behind them, start empathizing with others.

Remember Emotional Intelligence is an Ongoing Process

Emotional intelligence is not something that you attempt to improve once, and then completely let go of it. It is an ongoing process, just like an individual continues to learn new things in life; emotional intelligence continues to improve with our experiences and understanding of emotion and behaviour. You cannot talk yourself into feeling, you can only experience your senses on a body level. Practices such as yoga or Pilates can help you access your body and enhance your EQ.

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4 Enjoyable Children’s Movies with a Vegan Message Looking for an enjoyable children’s movie that will gently introduce a vegan message of compassion and awareness? Then the following list is just for you🐝🐻🐾

Children have a natural sense of affection and tendency to form strong bonds with animals. Perhaps this is why so many children’s stories and movies feature animals as their protagonists. From The Ugly Duckling, to Winnie the Pooh, and Dumbo, children are taught that animals have feelings too, and that we, humans, should be sensitive to them.

But the 4 children’s movies introduced below don’t only teach us that animals have feelings, they also carry a vegan message of compassion and empathy towards others, regardless of their species. These movies can help to gently introduce children to the different ways animals are harmed and exploited in various industries throughout the world, and what they can do about it.

1. Bee Movie

Bee Movie is a 2007 Dreamworks animated adventure comedy that will get children thinking about where honey and other animal byproducts come from, and whether we have the right to obtain them through exploitation.

Barry the bee (Jerry Seinfeld) is a recent college graduate with what some might call high ideals. He is fed up with humans taking all the honey he and the other bees work so tirelessly to produce. He finds Vanessa (Renée Zellweger), a human who understands him and believes in his mission, and together they sue the human race for taking advantage of bees. The presiding judge (Oprah Winfrey) declares victory for the bees.

Bee Movie touches primarily on topics of exploitation, and of animals living a life of slavery. In one scene Barry the bee exclaims: “Is this what nature intended for us? To be forcibly addicted to smoke machines and man-made wooden slat work camps? Living out our lives as honey slaves to the white man?” In another scene, Barry finds an ally in a cow who, in relating to his plight, cries, “Milk, cream, cheese, it’s all me. And I don’t see a nickel! Sometimes I just feel like a piece of meat!” Lines like this may leave children wondering whether bees and cows actually “give” humans their honey and milk, or whether their secretions are taken from them as part of an unjust exploitation process.

Upon watching this movie children will know where honey comes from, how much work bees put into making it, and how they are treated.Armed with this knowledge and the help of their guardians they may decide to use cruelty-free honey substitutes such as agave, maple, or date honey, and dairy milk substitutes such as almond or soya milk.

2. 101 Dalmatians

Both the 1961 animation and the 1996 live adaptation of Dodie Smith’s 1956 novel The Hundred and One Dalmatians will have kids questioning where fur and leather come from.

Disney’s 101 Dalmatians does an excellent job of putting a face to the evil fur and leather industries in the form of the story’s villain, Cruella de Vil (portrayed in 1996 by Glenn Close). Cruella hires a couple of gruff thieves to steal a sweet and spunky litter of Dalmatians to make herself a coat out of their spotted fur. The story centers around Cruella’s efforts to capture the puppies as well as their struggle to return home safely.

101 Dalmatians brings awareness to how fur coats and leather garments come to be. This knowledge may inspire kids to boycott animal derived materials, and encourage their family and friends to do the same. 

3. Bambi

This classic 1942 animated Disney movie is a didactic tale of life and death, joy and grief. The movie is based on Bambi, a Life in the Woods, originally written by Felix Salten in 1923 and published in Austria as Bambi. Eine Lebensgeschichte aus dem Walde. Bambi, a young fawn prince, is born in the forest into a world where he must learn lessons quickly or face terrifying consequences.

Bambi makes friends that are of different species but who accept him for who he is. His father occasionally teaches him important lessons about bravery, avoiding snare traps, and keeping off of human made trails, while his mother teaches him to be wary of hunters – hunters who eventually shoot her dead.

Though hunting is mostly still legal, this movie can help teach children how devastative and cruel it is, and assist them in developing compassion towards the various animals of the forest.When they grow up and are faced with the option of hunting with friends, they might recall on Bambi and decide against it.

4. Brother Bear

In this 2003 Disney adventure, Kenai (voiced by vegan star, Joaquin Phoenix) kills a bear in a revenge attack, and is consequently turned into a bear himself by Spirits angered by his actions. As a bear Kenai is able to converse with other animals and gains an appreciation and insight for all the life around him. Kenai is freed from a bear trap by a talkative bear cub named Koda. In response to a display of love for his bear friends the Spirits transform Kenai back into a human. However, he decides he would rather live as a bear, and the Spirits grant him his wish.

Like Bambi, this movie also depicts the horrors of hunting and carries a strong message. However, it is also filled with beautiful wilderness scenes, lots of laughs, and music from Tina Turner and Phil Collins.Brother Bear advocates the Golden Rule of treating others (whether human or animal) as we would like to be treated.

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Irish Coffee and Caramel Cake [Vegan] 🍰

I would like to introduce you to the most surprising cake I ever made. Why is it surprising? Because  in all the stages before decorating, it just looks like a mess… Making this cake, you will never guess it would look the way it looks at the end.
It’s also incredibly tasty! The cake is filled with yummy surprises from the top layer of thick caramel, to the taste of Irish coffee inside.
It is a great cake to serve for guests; Its texture is soft and creamy – just please don’t blame me for ruining your diet!
You’ll be building 2 layers in this cake and the cake will be quite large. So make sure you use a 26cm tin or even larger if you have one…
Irish Coffee and Caramel Cake Recipe
Base Ingredients:
1/4 cup of soya milk mixed with plain flour (add the flour in small amounts until you get a texture which has a soft cream cheese like texture)
1/4 cup cocoa powder
1/2 tsp baking soda
3/4 cup of self raising flour
1/4 cup of sugar
50g dark vegan chocolate
1/4 tsp salt
2 tbsp melted coconut oil

Base Preparation:

Preheat the oven to 180 degrees celcius
In a bowl mix together the cocoa, sugar and oil until you get a smooth mixture.
Add the soya milk and flour mixture to this
Add the flour, salt, baking powder and melted chocolate and gently blend until you get a nice shiny dough
Once the dough is ready, spread this evenly into the baking tin to form your cakes base and bake this for 10 mins at 180 degrees
Ingredients for the 1st layer:
60ml or 4 tbsp of Irish coffee
1/4 cup Irish coffee
125ml of soya cream
450g (2 tubs) of Toffuti original cheese
225g (1 tub) of Toffuti sour cream cheese
1/2 cup of sugar
45ml (3 tbsps) of instant coffee granules
1 tsp of baking soda
Caramel lotus cookies

Preparation of 1st layer:

Mix all these ingredients together, EXCEPT the biscuits and the 1/4 cup Irish coffee, with an electric whisk.
Pour the resulting mixture onto the cake base made earlier. On top of that mixture spread the biscuits evenly, and crumble some to fill in the gaps. Pour the 1/4 cup of Irish coffee over the biscuits.
Ingredients for the 2nd layer:
200ml of coconut cream
225g (1 tub) of Toffuti sour cream cheese (you can use the original cheese one if you dont have the sour cream)
125ml soya cream
1/4 cup of sugar
1/2 tsp of vanilla essence
1 tbsp of corn starch (cornflour)
Preparation of 2nd layer

Mix all the ingredients with an electric whisker

Pour on top of the biscuit layer.
Place the cake in the oven (still at 180 degrees) for 45 minutes or until the top layer looks dark. The cake will bubble and will look like it is about to explode! but don’t worry, its supposed to scare you like that (!). It’s going to cook well and the white upper layer will shrink and become a soft brown layer. The cake will come out of the oven looking kind of wobbly and still liquidy. Leave it out covered for a few hours and it will solidify.
Decoration
Cover the ugly brown layer with half a pack of dark chocolate. Use either a grater or a peeler to shave chocolate curls on top of your masterpiece.
Enjoy!
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This Amazing Project is Planting Trees in the Amazon Rainforest, but That’s Just Part of the Story 🌿

It’s hard to swallow this statistic, but 2,000 trees are chopped down in the Amazon rainforest every 60 seconds to make room for agriculture. Additionally, 1,600 of those trees are chopped down every minute just to make room forcattle to graze and to grow livestock feed. If these rates of deforestation continue, there likely won’t be any rainforests left in the next 100 years.

With the animal agriculture industry being responsible formore greenhouse gas emissions than the entire transportation sector combined, we need to act now to save the planet. And fast.

In the wake of this, there is one awesome program that is helping to reforest the Amazon by fostering sustainable economic opportunities for indigenous people. One Tree Planted, a nonprofit organization focused on planting trees throughout the world teamed up with Waykana Social Impact to help restore a section of the Amazon rainforest in Ecuador that has been lost to agriculture and logging.

The loss of forest in this region has a profound impact asEcuador has one of the highest biodiversity indices in the world. It has 2,703 known species of birds, mammals, amphibians and reptiles and is home to over 19,000 plants, of which 20 percent are endemic.

Sadly, since the 1970s it is estimated that Ecuador has lost 30 percent of its forests – largely due to encroaching industries that seek to exploit the forests natural resources. Indigenous tribes, such as the Kichwa, who own their own parcels of land have little choice but to resort to destructive agricultural practices to keep with the burgeoning economy.

According to Louis Lagoutte, a representative from Waykana Social Impact, “What happens in the Amazon from a conservation point of view is that growers not in conservation areas such as the ones we work with have no restrictions on what they can do with their land as they own it.” He further explains, “The communities are settled in these areas and often live in poverty. It is therefore often in their interests to exploit the land they own in whatever way is most profitable.  This often means cutting down all trees and clearing land for cattle, which even on small scale agriculture has massive environmental impacts.”

Transitioning previously diverse land into monoculture crops or cattle ranges quickly leads to soil erosion and depletion, making this new economic model both ineffective and unsustainable long-term.

Healing the Land and Indigenous Communities

In an attempt to restore these plots of land and empower indigenous people, Waykana and One Tree Planted are running a tree planting program focused on planting Guayusa trees. Guayusa is asuper-leaf tree, traditionally used to brew tea, that is only found in the Amazon rainforest in Ecuador.  This tree has most caffeinated leaves known to humankind and has been consumed in the Ecuadorian Amazon for thousands of years. It is traditionally consumed before dawn at a special ceremony where members of the family meet to discuss what they dreamt of the night before and their goals for the day.200px-Capuchin_Costa_Rica

This Amazing Project is Planting Trees in the Amazon Rainforest, but That’s Just Part of the Story 🌿

It’s hard to swallow this statistic, but 2,000 trees are chopped down in the Amazon rainforest every 60 seconds to make room for agriculture. Additionally, 1,600 of those trees are chopped down every minute just to make room forcattle to graze and to grow livestock feed. If these rates of deforestation continue, there likely won’t be any rainforests left in the next 100 years.

With the animal agriculture industry being responsible formore greenhouse gas emissions than the entire transportation sector combined, we need to act now to save the planet. And fast.

In the wake of this, there is one awesome program that is helping to reforest the Amazon by fostering sustainable economic opportunities for indigenous people. One Tree Planted, a nonprofit, organization focused on planting trees throughout the world teamed up with Waykana Social Impact to help restore a section of the Amazon rainforest in Ecuador that has been lost to agriculture and logging.

The loss of forest in this region has a profound impact as Ecuador has one of the highest biodiversity indices in the world. It has 2,703 known species of birds, mammals, amphibians and reptiles and is home to over 19,000 plants, of which 20 percent are endemic.

Sadly, since the 1970s it is estimated that Ecuador has lost 30 percent of its forests – largely due to encroaching industries that seek to exploit the forests natural resources. Indigenous tribes, such as the Kichwa, who own their own parcels of land have little choice but to resort to destructive agricultural practices to keep with the burgeoning economy.

According to Louis Lagoutte, a representative from Waykana Social Impact, “What happens in the Amazon from a conservation point of view is that growers not in conservation areas such as the ones we work with have no restrictions on what they can do with their land as they own it.” He further explains, “The communities are settled in these areas and often live in poverty. It is therefore often in their interests to exploit the land they own in whatever way is most profitable.  This often means cutting down all trees and clearing land for cattle, which even on small scale agriculture has massive environmental impacts.”

Transitioning previously diverse land into monoculture crops or cattle ranges quickly leads to soil erosion and depletion, making this new economic model both ineffective and unsustainable long-term.

Healing the Land and Indigenous Communities

In an attempt to restore these plots of land and empower indigenous people, Waykana and One Tree Planted are running a tree planting program focused on planting Guayusa trees. Guayusa is asuper-leaf tree, traditionally used to brew tea, that is only found in the Amazon rainforest in Ecuador.  This tree has most caffeinated leaves known to humankind and has been consumed in the Ecuadorian Amazon for thousands of years. It is traditionally consumed before dawn at a special ceremony where members of the family meet to discuss what they dreamt of the night before and their goals for the day.200px-Capuchin_Costa_Rica5733605549_9d80f20df1_b-460x306